A Reference Standard is a highly characterized, standardized and validated reference material.
The Advanced Encryption Standard Algorithm Validation Suite (AESAVS) | PDF
Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) (FIPS PUB 197) | PDF
The Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) specifies a FIPS-approved cryptographic algorithm that can be used to protect electronic data. The AES algorithm is a symmetric block cipher that can encrypt (encipher) and decrypt (decipher) information. Encryption converts data to an unintelligible form called ciphertext; decrypting the ciphertext converts the data back into its original form, called plaintext. The AES algorithm is capable of using cryptographic keys of 128, 192, and 256 bits to encrypt and decrypt data in blocks of 128 bits.
This document describes the MD5 message-digest algorithm. The algorithm takes as input a message of arbitrary length and produces as output a 128-bit "fingerprint" or "message digest" of the input. This memo provides information for the Internet community. It does not specify an Internet standard.
RFC 2202 - Test Cases for HMAC-MD5 and HMAC-SHA-1 (Errata) | PDF
RFC 2286 - Test Cases for HMAC-RIPEMD160 and HMAC-RIPEMD128 (Errata) | PDF
RFC 4231 - Identifiers and Test Vectors for HMAC-SHA-224, HMAC-SHA-256, HMAC-SHA-384, and HMAC-SHA-512 (Errata) | PDF
The paper that first introduced Bitcoin | PDF
Abstract. A purely peer-to-peer version of electronic cash would allow online payments to be sent directly from one party to another without going through a financial institution. Digital signatures provide part of the solution, but the main benefits are lost if a trusted third party is still required to prevent double-spending. We propose a solution to the double-spending problem using a peer-to-peer network. The network timestamps transactions by hashing them into an ongoing chain of hash-based proof-of-work, forming a record that cannot be changed without redoing the proof-of-work. The longest chain not only serves as proof of the sequence of events witnessed, but proof that it came from the largest pool of CPU power. As long as a majority of CPU power is controlled by nodes that are not cooperating to attack the network, they'll generate the longest chain and outpace attackers. The network itself requires minimal structure. Messages are broadcast on a best effort basis, and nodes can leave and rejoin the network at will, accepting the longest proof-of-work chain as proof of what happened while they were gone.
Design of a Secure Timestamping Service with Minimal Trust Requirements | PDF
Design of a secure timestamping service with minimal trust requirement, In Proceedings of the 20th symposium on Information Theory in the Benelux, pages 79-86, May 1999 - Henri Massias, Xavier Serret, and Jean-Jacques Quisquater.